考点:现在分词的完成式的结构为“hing+过去分词”,此时主要作状

简介: 考点:现在分词的完成式的结构为“hing+过去分词”,此时主要作状语,相当于一个状语从句,也可做定语,表示这个动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生,否定形式是在现

带有状语或宾语的现在分词称为现在分词短语,如 singing songs loudly其否定式是在现在分词前加not。

2、现在分词的句法功能现在分词的作用相当于形容词和副词,在句中可以作定语、状语、表语、宾语补足语等。

All ng bodies possess energy切运动的物体都具有能量。

A man getting up as soon as the cock crows is hardwong man.鸡鸣即起的人是一个勤奋的人。

He is a businessman growing rich in recent years.他是一位最近几年才富起来的商人。

考点现在分词(短语)作状语,用来进一步说明谓语动词或整个句子的动作或状态,可以表示时间、原因、结果、目的、条件、方式、随状况等。

Hearing the news, they immediately set off for Beijing.(时间)听到这个消息后,他们立即出发到北京去了。

Being short of money, decided to apply for the job.(原因)由于手头缺钱,我决定申请这份工作。

He turned off the lamp, seeing nothing.(结果)他熄了灯,什么也看不见了。

Tumning to the right, you will find a path to the village.(条件)向右转弯,你就可以找到一条通向村庄的小路。

He walked down the hill, singing softly to himself.(方式或伴随)他从小山上走下来,轻声哼着曲儿。

经典例题:The secretary worked late into the night,______a long speech for the president.A. to prepare B. preparing C.prepared D. was preparing[翻译]秘书工作到深夜,为准备长篇稿。

又因逗号前后两个动作同时发生,且 prepare与主语 The secretary之间为逻辑上的主谓关系,所以应用现在分词作伴随状语。

No matter what kind of work you do, it needs to be fulfilling and satisfying.不论你做什么工作,它都需要给人带来成就感和满足感。

The story of his life sounds interesting.他的生平听起来很有趣。

I found those students studying very hard.我发现那些学生学习非常努力She suddenly heard someone knocking at the door.她忽然听到有人敲门。

When I caught him______, I stopped buying things there and started dealing with another shop.A.cheating B.cheat C. to cheat D. to be cheating[翻译]当我发现他欺骗我时,我就不在他那里买东西了,并且开始到其他的商店购物。

catch sb. doing sth.意为“抓到某人正在做某事”, catch的宾语补足语要用现在分词形式,类似的动词还有感官动词feel,hear,look at等以及使役动词he,make,get,keep等。

现在分词的一般式的结构为“动词原形+-ingSomeone saw him entering the room from the back door at that time.那时,有人看到他从后门进入了房间。

Walking in the street the other day, I came across an old friend of mine.前几天在街上散步的时候,我碰见了一位老朋友。

考点:现在分词的完成式的结构为“hing+过去分词”,此时主要作状语,相当于一个状语从句,也可做定语,表示这个动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生,否定形式是在现在分词hing 前加not。

Hing dressed myself went to the office穿好衣服就去了办公室。

Hing watered the vegetables, the farmer took a short rest.给蔬菜浇完水,这位农民休息了一小会儿。

Not hing done it right, he tr again他没有做对,又试了一次。

The person hing experienced difficulties of life will not be discouraged easily.体验过人生艰辛的人不会轻易丧失信心。

经典例题:_______a reply, he decided to write another letter again.A. Not receivingB. Receiving notC. Not hing receivedD. Hing not receiving[翻译]没有得到回复,他决定再写一封信。

根据句意可知, receive和其逻辑主语he之间为主谓关系,所以此处应用现在分词作状语。

另外,“没有收到”这一动作在谓语动词 decided所表示的动作之前发生,所以应用现在分词的完成式。

The first step being taken, the rest is easy.迈出了第一步的话,其余的就容易了。

The bridge being built there will be the longest in China.正在那里建造的那座桥将成为中国最长的桥。

He found the topic being discussed everywhere他发现到处都在讨论这个问题。

现在分词的完成被动式的结构为“ hing been+过去分词,不仅表示被动,而且表示这个作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生。

Hing been trapped traffic he was late for work因为堵车,他上班迟到了。

Hing been told many times, she still couldn't understand it.尽管告诉了她很多次,她仍然不明白。

经典例题:_________to work overtime that evening, I missed a wonderful film.A. Hing been asked B. To askC. Hing asked. To be asked[翻译]那天晚上被要求加班,我错过了一场好电影。

1和ask之间为逻辑上的动宾关系,即“我被要求加班”,所以应用被动语态另外,根据句意可知,“被要求加班”这一动作发生在“过了一场好电影”之前,所以应用现在分词的完成式,强调动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前。

综上所述,应用现在分词的完成被动式Hing been asked.二、过去分词1、过去分词的构成和特征构成没有统一规则。

不规则动词的过去2、过去分词的句法功能过去分词在句中起形容词和副词的作用,可以作定语、状语、表语和宾语补足语等。

Chance fors the prepared mind.机会垂青有准备的人。

The suggestion sent to the committee was adopted.送会的建议被采纳了Children disciplined when they are young will become good citizens.小时候受过训练的孩子会成为好公民。

考点过去分词(短语)在句中作状语,可以用来进一步说明谓语动词的动作,也可以说明整个句子,表示动作的被动和完成;可以表示时间、原因、方式、条件、让步、伴随状况等,可置于句首、句中或句尾,可用逗号分开,也可不用逗号。

Deeply moved by her words, the old man agreed to her request.老人被她的话深深地打动了,所以答应了她的要求。

Simply stated, a habit is something you do so often that it becomes easy.简而言之,习惯是指因经常做而变得简单的事情。

United we stand, divided we fall(条件)团结就是胜利,必然失败,Wounded, the bre soldier continued to fight.虽然受伤了,那名勇敢的战仍然继续作战。

经典例题:_________not to miss the flight at 15: 20, the manager set out for the airport in a hurry.A.Reminding B.Reminded C. To remind D. Hing reminded[翻译]有人提醒这位经理不要错过15:20的航班后,他匆匆忙忙地赶往机场。

根据句意可知, remind与 the manager之间是逻辑上的动宾关系,所以应用过去分词表被动。

A man is not finished when he is defeated. He is finished when he gives up.一个人不会毁于失败,而会毁于放弃。

I am convinced of his honesty我相信他是诚实的。

Her illness continued unchanged.她的病情仍然没有好转。

They are satisf with their job.他们对现在的工作很满意。

If you want a thing well done, do it yourself.如果你想出色地完成一件事,就要亲自干。

I found this city greatly changed.我现这座城市变化很大。

She saw the thief caught by policeman.她看见那个小偷被抓住了。

三、独立主格结构1、独立主格结构的构成和特征独立主格结构是一个名词或代词(作为逻辑主语)加上一个不定式分词介词短语、形容词、副词等在句中作状语。

它有以下三个特点:(1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在;(2)独立主格结构的位置比较灵活,可置于句首、句中或句尾;(3)独立主格结构一般用逗号与句子分开,但与句子之间不使用任何连接词2、独立主格结构的常见形式(1)名词(代词)+不定式。

So many people to help him, he is sure to succeed有如此多的人来帮助他,他一定会成功的。

Nobody to come tomorrow, we will he to put off the meetin如果明天没有人来,我们将不得不把会议推迟到下周。

The question being settled, e went home.问题解决之后,我们就回家了。

He being ill, we'd better put off the meeting.他病了,我们最好还是延期开会吧。

Nothing given, we can't finish the job on time.什么都没给我们,我们不可能按时完成工作(4)名词(代词)+介词短语。

he soldiers dashed in rifle in hand.兵们端着枪冲了进来。

He was waiting, his eyes on her back.他在等着,眼睛望着她的背影。

(5)名词(代词)+形容词或副词He sat in the front row, his mouth half open.他坐在前排,嘴半张着。

She sat at the table, collar off, head down and pen in position, ready to begin the long letter.她坐在桌前,衣领已解掉,头低了下来,拿好钢笔准备开始写一封长信。

(6)There beingt+名词(代词)There being nothing else to do, we went home.没有别的事可做,我们就回家了There being no further business, I declare the meeting closed.没有需要进一步商讨的事宜了,我宣布散会。

The work done(=After the work had been done, we went home.工作完成后,我们就回家了。

Weather permitting =If the weather permits) they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow.如果天气允许的话,他们明天将去海滩郊游。

An important lecture to be given tomorrow(=As an important lecture will be given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night.因为明天要发表一个重要的演讲,教授不得不熬夜到很晚。

He was lying on the grass, his hands crossed under his head(=and his hands were crossed under his head).他躺在草地上,两手交叉枕在脑后。


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